目录

通过Geth搭建私有以太坊网络

前言

为了进一步了解以太坊区块链网络的工作方式和运行原理,笔者通过官方软件Geth搭建了私有以太坊网络fantasynetwork,最终实现了单机和多机节点间的相互连通:首先通过VMware Workstation创建基础Ubuntu实验平台,再安装Golang1、Geth2等依赖环境;其次使用puppeth工具生成私网的配置文件fantasynetwork.json并复制到三个节点目录下,三个节点均使用该配置文件初始化网络;最后使用static-nodes.json的方式将三个节点设为默认接入节点,实现节点间的连通,连通后各节点中的账户可以互相转账挖矿。

单机多节点私网3

本试验的项目结构为:

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privateNet    
├── accounts.txt    
├── fantasynetwork.json    
├── node1    
│   ├── geth    
│   ├── keystore    
│   ├── node.sh    
│   ├── password.txt    
│   └── static-nodes.json    
├── node2    
│   ├── geth    
│   ├── keystore    
│   ├── node.sh    
│   ├── password.txt    
│   └── static-nodes.json    
└── node3    
    ├── geth    
    ├── keystore    
    ├── node.sh        
    ├── password.txt    
    └── static-nodes.json

创建工作目录

  1. 创建私网工作目录mkdir privateNet && cd privateNet
  2. 创建三个节点数据目录mkdir node1 node2 node3
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     privateNet/
     ├── node1
     ├── node2
     └── node3
    

创建默认用户

  1. Node1
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     [email protected]:~/privateNet$ geth --datadir node1/ account new
     Your new account is locked with a password. Please give a password. Do not forget this password.
     Password:
     Repeat password:
    
     Your new key was generated
    
     Public address of the key:   0x600d77B8ce36B829BFC8a1Cc5696Faf2218bDf75
     Path of the secret key file: node1/keystore/UTC--2021-08-11T04-51-26.533482715Z--600d77b8ce36b829bfc8a1cc5696faf2218bdf75
    
  2. Node 2
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     [email protected]:~/privateNet$ geth --datadir node2/ account new
     Your new account is locked with a password. Please give a password. Do not forget this password.
     Password:
     Repeat password:
    
     Your new key was generated
    
     Public address of the key:   0x2F7fD5BD0026f7C2f0dB94b79D58AFE517BC56d2
     Path of the secret key file: node2/keystore/UTC--2021-08-11T04-53-30.820914994Z--2f7fd5bd0026f7c2f0db94b79d58afe517bc56d2
    
  3. Node3
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     [email protected]:~/privateNet$ geth --datadir node3/ account new
     Your new account is locked with a password. Please give a password. Do not forget this password.
     Password:
     Repeat password:
    
     Your new key was generated
    
     Public address of the key:   0x6c1440E9c6Ca93C18B1e2A069D1D5a70e29C2363
     Path of the secret key file: node3/keystore/UTC--2021-08-11T04-54-24.244487186Z--6c1440e9c6ca93c18b1e2a069d1d5a70e29c2363
    

在此创建账户的密码设置为fantasy,操作完成后会在每个节点目录下的keystore目录中找到账户密钥文件/钱包地址。

保存账户凭证

  1. 将以上账户的公钥地址保存至文本文件
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     echo '0x600d77B8ce36B829BFC8a1Cc5696Faf2218bDf75' >> accounts.txt
     echo '0x2F7fD5BD0026f7C2f0dB94b79D58AFE517BC56d2' >> accounts.txt
     echo '0x6c1440E9c6Ca93C18B1e2A069D1D5a70e29C2363' >> accounts.txt
    
  2. 为了实验方便,将账户对应的密码文件保存至对应节点目录下
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     echo 'fantasy' > node1/password.txt
     echo 'fantasy' > node2/password.txt
     echo 'fantasy' > node3/password.txt
    

创建配置文件

  1. 设置网络名称
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     [email protected]:~/privateNet$ puppeth
     Please specify a network name to administer (no spaces, hyphens or capital letters please)
     > fantasynetwork
     Sweet, you can set this via --network=fantasynetwork next time!
     INFO [08-10|22:08:31.110] Administering Ethereum network           name=fantasynetwork
     WARN [08-10|22:08:31.110] No previous configurations found         path=/home/test/.puppeth/fantasynetwork
    
  2. 选择程序功能
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     What would you like to do? (default = stats)
     1. Show network stats
     2. Configure new genesis
     3. Track new remote server
     4. Deploy network components
     > 2
    
  3. 选择创建网络
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     What would you like to do? (default = create)
     1. Create new genesis from scratch
     2. Import already existing genesis
     > 1
    
  4. 选择共识算法
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     Which consensus engine to use? (default = clique)
     1. Ethash - proof-of-work
     2. Clique - proof-of-authority
     > 1
    
  5. 选择默认账号
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     Which accounts should be pre-funded? (advisable at least one)
     > 0x600d77B8ce36B829BFC8a1Cc5696Faf2218bDf75
     > 0x2F7fD5BD0026f7C2f0dB94b79D58AFE517BC56d2
     > 0x6c1440E9c6Ca93C18B1e2A069D1D5a70e29C2363
     > 0x
    
  6. 设置默认单位
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     Should the precompile-addresses (0x1 .. 0xff) be pre-funded with 1 wei? (advisable yes)
     > yes
    
  7. 设置网络ID
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     Specify your chain/network ID if you want an explicit one (default = random)
     > 7777
     INFO [08-10|22:16:40.485] Configured new genesis block
    
  8. 导出配置文件
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     What would you like to do? (default = stats)
     1. Show network stats
     2. Manage existing genesis
     3. Track new remote server
     4. Deploy network components
     > 2
     1. Modify existing configurations
     2. Export genesis configurations
     3. Remove genesis configuration
     > 2
     Which folder to save the genesis specs into? (default = current)
     Will create fantasynetwork.json, fantasynetwork-aleth.json, fantasynetwork-harmony.json, fantasynetwork-parity.json
     >
     INFO [08-10|22:18:48.283] Saved native genesis chain spec          path=fantasynetwork.json
     INFO [08-10|22:18:48.285] Saved genesis chain spec                 client=aleth path=fantasynetwork-aleth.json
     INFO [08-10|22:18:48.286] Saved genesis chain spec                 client=parity path=fantasynetwork-parity.json
     INFO [08-10|22:18:48.287] Saved genesis chain spec                 client=harmony path=fantasynetwork-harmony.json
    
  9. 退出工具
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    What would you like to do? (default = stats)
    1. Show network stats
    2. Manage existing genesis
    3. Track new remote server
    4. Deploy network components
    > ^C
    

此时可在当前目录下看见生成的四个配置文件,在此只用到fantasynetwork.json文件,其他文件可删去。

  1. 修改配置文件 为了更容易挖到矿,将配置文件中difficulty难度值调小(其它参数含义可参考《创世区块配置文件genesis.json的格式解读》4):
    https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/gh/wefantasy/FileCloud/img/202108111333482.png
    调整difficulty

初始化三个节点

每个节点必须使用相同的配置文件进行初始化:

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geth --datadir node1/ init fantasynetwork.json
geth --datadir node2/ init fantasynetwork.json
geth --datadir node3/ init fantasynetwork.json

运行三个节点

进入对应的节点目录下执行一下命令(其它参数含义可参考《以太坊客户端Geth命令用法-参数详解》5):

  1. Node1
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    geth --nousb --datadir=$pwd --syncmode 'full' --port 27271 --miner.gasprice 0 --miner.gastarget 470000000000 --http --http.addr 'localhost' --http.port 7271 --http.api admin,eth,miner,net,txpool,personal,web3 --mine --allow-insecure-unlock --unlock "0x600d77B8ce36B829BFC8a1Cc5696Faf2218bDf75" --password password.txt 
    
    https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/gh/wefantasy/FileCloud/img/202108111352215.png
    启动节点node1
    得到节点一的enode:
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    enode://0f870fa3f8085f5abf74ea7c2a12a0809a9daaece20e3b1c4c80fb6929ff65268[email protected]127.0.0.1:27271
    
  2. Node2
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    geth --nousb --datadir=$pwd --syncmode 'full' --port 27272 --miner.gasprice 0 --miner.gastarget 470000000000 --http --http.addr 'localhost' --http.port 7272 --http.api admin,eth,miner,net,txpool,personal,web3 --mine --allow-insecure-unlock --unlock "0x2F7fD5BD0026f7C2f0dB94b79D58AFE517BC56d2" --password password.txt 
    
    得到节点二的enode:
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    enode://45c2fc2bfdf0f48afe2083d82cc1cc642a96fcc2815755024a17b95b9fd1b3124[email protected]127.0.0.1:27272
    
  3. Node3
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    geth --nousb --datadir=$pwd --syncmode 'full' --port 27273 --miner.gasprice 0 --miner.gastarget 470000000000 --http --http.addr 'localhost' --http.port 7273 --http.api admin,eth,miner,net,txpool,personal,web3 --mine --allow-insecure-unlock --unlock "0x6c1440E9c6Ca93C18B1e2A069D1D5a70e29C2363" --password password.txt 
    
    得到节点三的enode:
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    enode://ae4b4e18afa6238753e14ca3e99c0858509fc76efee715dd1c8278bbb7eaa5614[email protected]127.0.0.1:27273
    

连通三个节点

Geth主要有三种方法连通其它节点:启动前配置static-nodes.json文件添加节点、启动时通过--bootnodes添加节点、启动后在控制台通过admin.addPeer命令添加节点。在此我们使用第一种方法。

  1. 在工作目录下创建static-nodes.json
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    [       
    "enode://0f870fa3f8085f5abf74ea7c2a12a0809a9daaece20e3b1c4c80fb6929ff65268[email protected]127.0.0.1:27271",    
    "enode://45c2fc2bfdf0f48afe2083d82cc1cc642a96fcc2815755024a17b95b9fd1b3124[email protected]127.0.0.1:27272",    
    "enode://ae4b4e18afa6238753e14ca3e99c0858509fc76efee715dd1c8278bbb7eaa5614[email protected]127.0.0.1:27273"    
    ]  
    
  2. 将该文件复制到每个节点根目录下:
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    cp static-nodes.json node1/
    cp static-nodes.json node2/
    cp static-nodes.json node3/
    
  3. 为了简化启动,可以创建启动节点批处理文件
    • node1/node.sh
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      nohup geth --nousb --datadir=$pwd --syncmode 'full' --port 27271 --miner.gasprice 0 --miner.gastarget 470000000000 --http --http.addr 'localhost' --http.port 7271 --http.api admin,eth,miner,net,txpool,personal,web3 --mine --allow-insecure-unlock --unlock "0x600d77B8ce36B829BFC8a1Cc5696Faf2218bDf75" --password password.txt &
      echo "Geth started on node 1"
      
    • node2/node.sh
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      nohup geth --nousb --datadir=$pwd --syncmode 'full' --port 27272 --miner.gasprice 0 --miner.gastarget 470000000000 --http --http.addr 'localhost' --http.port 7272 --http.api admin,eth,miner,net,txpool,personal,web3 --mine --allow-insecure-unlock --unlock "0x2F7fD5BD0026f7C2f0dB94b79D58AFE517BC56d2" --password password.txt &
      echo "Geth started on node 2"
      
    • node2/node.sh
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      nohup geth --nousb --datadir=$pwd --syncmode 'full' --port 27273 --miner.gasprice 0 --miner.gastarget 470000000000 --http --http.addr 'localhost' --http.port 7273 --http.api admin,eth,miner,net,txpool,personal,web3 --mine --allow-insecure-unlock --unlock "0x6c1440E9c6Ca93C18B1e2A069D1D5a70e29C2363" --password password.txt &
      echo "Geth started on node 3"
      
  4. 启动各节点
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    [email protected]:~/privateNet/node1$ sh node.sh
    [email protected]:~/privateNet/node2$ sh node.sh
    [email protected]:~/privateNet/node3$ sh node.sh
    
  5. 打开三个终端,使用geth attach命令接入三个节点命令行
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    [email protected]:~/privateNet/node1$ geth attach geth.ipc
    [email protected]:~/privateNet/node2$ geth attach geth.ipc
    [email protected]:~/privateNet/node3$ geth attach geth.ipc
    
    https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/gh/wefantasy/FileCloud/img/202108111452301.png
    geth attach
  6. 查看已连接节点
    https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/gh/wefantasy/FileCloud/img/202108111451813.png
    查看已连接节点

此时各节点已连接完成,每个节点账户默认为10个以太币,各节点账户间可自由转账和挖矿,需要注意的是转账后必须经过挖矿操作才能被写入区块链。上方法启动后的程序将会运行在后台,关闭需通过ps ax | grep geth命令和kill <process id>命令。

多机多节点私网

准备

  1. 设置上节Ubuntu虚拟机网络模式为桥接,且IP设为静态IP172.25.1.99
  2. Windows的IP设为静态172.25.1.55

加入私网

  1. 在Windows下创建文件夹node4,并将fantasynetwork.json复制到其中
  2. 初始化节点4
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    C:\Users\Fantasy\Desktop\node4> geth --datadir . init fantasynetwork.json
    
  3. 新建账户
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    C:\Users\Fantasy\Desktop\node4>geth -datadir . console
    > personal.newAccount("fantasy")
    WARN [08-11|16:13:32.987] Please remember your password!
    "0xbef61b5754ffaa843cc9199fb9a11aac468134f4"
    > exit
    
  4. 启动节点4
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    geth --nousb --datadir=. --syncmode "full" --port 27271 --miner.gasprice 0 --miner.gastarget 470000000000 --http --http.addr 0.0.0.0 --http.port 7271 --http.api admin,eth,miner,net,txpool,personal,web3 --mine --allow-insecure-unlock console
    
  5. 添加节点16
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    > net.peerCount
    0
    > admin.addPeer("enode://0f870fa3f8085f5abf74ea7c2a12a0809a9daaece20e3b1c4c80fb6929ff65268[email protected]172.25.1.99:27271")
    true
    > net.peerCount
    1
    

此时各节点已连接完成,各节点账户间可自由转账和挖矿,需要注意的是转账后必须经过挖矿操作才能被写入区块链

注意事项:

  • 很多教程中说不同节点启动时不能使用相同的端口,那是因为其运行在同一个主机上,这里节点1和节点4运行在不同的端口上,故可以使用相同的端口。
  • 添加节点无效常见原因/解决办法:
    • admin.addPeer后等一段时间才会生效
    • admin.addPeer时使用的是NAT后公网地址,而公网防火墙通常拒绝异常接入
    • admin.addPeer后开始挖矿增加同步速度
    • 简单的方法是使用上节中的static-nodes.json方法

参考


  1. yuanlulu. golang学习1:ubuntu下安装golang并简单测试. CSDN. [2021-02-21] ↩︎

  2. shciily. Linux系统下安装Geth客户端. CSDN. [2020-08-29] ↩︎

  3. Divyang Desai. Setup Your Private Ethereum Network With Geth. c-sharpcorner.com. [2020-08-04] ↩︎

  4. soowin. 创世区块配置文件genesis.json的格式解读. CSDN. [2021-01-26] ↩︎

  5. mb5fe559b5073e8. 以太坊客户端Geth命令用法-参数详解. CSDN. [2021-06-13] ↩︎

  6. Someone. “admin.addPeer” is not working. Github. [2020-09-27] ↩︎